pinguin      tiger

Jumat, 29 April 2011


Amanita mycorrhiza (white patches) to infect the root tip.

Mycorrhizal fungi are a group of (fungus) that symbiosis with higher plants (vascular plants, Tracheophyta), especially on the root system. There is also a symbiotic fungi with other fungi, called mycorrhizae but usually is to those that infect roots.

Mycorrhizal plant roots require to complete their life cycle. Conversely, some plants and some even depend on growth with mycorrhizae. Some plant species do not thrive or stunted without the presence of mycorrhizae in the roots. For example, pine seedlings usually fail to grow after the removal if it does not form mycorrhizal networks around the roots. Only a few groups of plants that do not become symbionts, such as the Brassicaceae, Commelinaceae, Juncaceae, Proteaceae, Capparaceae, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae, Resedaceae, Urticaceae, and Caryophyllales.

Mycorrhiza can artificially inoculated. However, inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal require assistance of local commercial, for example by adding soil from plant origin.

Mycorrhizae are divided into two groups based on how it infects, ie ektomikoriza and endomikoriza.


Ektomikoriza infects the outer surface of the plant and root tip cells. As a result of the attack, looks braided white mycelia on the root hairs, known as hartig net. This attack can cause changes in root morphology. The roots shortened, swollen, branched dikotom, and can form a pigment. Infectivity depends isolates and cultivars of host plants. Host plants are usually annual plants or trees. Some of them are forestry and agricultural commodities such as sengon, teak, and several fruit crops such as mango, rambutan, and oranges. Also trees member Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Pinaceae and also became its host. In general ektomikoriza included in the Basidiomycota.


Endomikoriza infect the inside of the roots, within and between cells of the root tip (root tip). Hyphae enter the cells or filling the spaces between cells. This mycorrhizal type found in many seasonal plants which are an important agricultural commodity, like beans, rice, corn, some vegetables and ornamentals. These infections do not cause changes in root morphology, but changes the appearance of cells and tissues of roots. Based on the type of infection, known endomikoriza three groups: ericaceous (Ericales with a number of Ascomycota), orchidaceous (Orchidaceae with a group of Basidiomycota), and vesicular arbuscular (number of vascular plants with Endogonales, forming the structure of vesicles (bubbles) and arbuscular the root cortex) abbreviated MVA.

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal

MVA and ektomikoriza useful for agriculture and forestry. Ektomokoriza can be grown in laboratory aksenik so easily developed. MVA was grown in aksenik difficult (artificial media), so that MVA is considered an obligate symbionts (mandatory).

Vesicle-shaped granules in the cytoplasm containing lipid and an organ of vegetative reproduction mycorrhiza, particularly when the cells rupture due to damage to the root cortex. Arbuscular hyphae that penetrate the tangible collection plasmalema and helps transport nutrients within the plant cell. Formation of vesicles and Arbuscular in cells indicates that there have been a perfect symbiosis and plants are able to enjoy the fruits of cooperation with mycorrhizae form of increased availability of nutrients absorbed from the soil.

Besides vesicles and arbuscular, external hyphae are formed that can help expand the absorption of nutrients by the roots. In onions, for example, the length of external hyphae may reach 80 cm by one cm long root. Outside the root, to form a sporangium hyphae that produce spores as a means of reproduction.

MVA bring much benefit to plants simbionnya. He improved the plants and reduce fertilizer inputs in agricultural crops. This occurs because the MVA increase the availability of some nutrients in the soil that required plants, especially phosphate. Increased absorption of phosphate was accompanied by increased absorption of other nutrients, like nitrogen (N), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and sulfur (S). In addition, the MVA expand the land that can be reached by the host plant. Oranges, for instance, is known responsive to inoculation with MVA. This inoculation can lead to decreased use of fertilizer P. Besides increasing nutrient availability, MVA increases plant tolerance to water shortages. Extensive network of hyphae in the soil helps the roots absorb water. MVA affect host plant resistance to disease attack. MVA, depending on the species, can reduce the influence of fungal pathogen attack. Similarly, also can reduce nematode attack. In contrast, MVA-infected plants decreased resistance to viral attacks.

Effect of other MVA has ever been observed is support for the symbiosis between nodule bacteria and legumes, the production of gibberellins by Gibberella mosseae, affecting certain fitohormon synthesis, and improve the structure of soil aggregation.

Source: Wikipedia

Kamis, 28 April 2011

CREATURES Life and Environment

No living thing that can meet the needs of his own life, including humans. For example, in order to survive humans need to eat. Human foods derived from plants and animals. Meanwhile, pets and plants can not live well without human assistance. In this chapter you will learn the relationship between antarmakhluk life and living things with their environment. These relationships need each other to create something unique. It also shows how the mahapencipta has designed and set up this perfectly natural.

A. Relations Between the Living creatures

Observe the environment around you carefully! In some creatures, there is a relationship that is special. Special relationship called symbiosis antarmakhluk life. Symbiosis may be divided into three, namely symbiotic mutualism, symbiosis parasitism, and symbiosis komensalisme.

1. Symbiotic Mutualism

Symbiotic mutualism is the relationship between two living things that are mutually beneficial. For example, the symbiosis between a buffalo with starlings. Buffalo make a profit by expiration kutukutu on her, while starlings feel lucky because getting food in the form of lice. Another example is the relationship between butterflies or bees with flowering plants. Butterflies and bees need nectar found in flowers as food. Flowers need a butterfly or a bee to assist the process of pollination.

2. Symbiosis Parasitism

Parasitism symbiosis is the relationship between two living things that lead to living a profit, while other living things suffer losses. For example, the relationship between the parasites of citrus, flowers Raflesia with its host, and lice with the animals where he lived. Parasite feel lucky because getting food from the citrus plant, citrus plant while impaired by food taken by the parasite. Flower foods made ​​Raflesia suck their host plants. As a result, interest Raflesia can flourish, while their host plants lamakelamaan will die. Flea obtain food by sucking blood from animals that dihinggapinya body, while the animal was seized with itching in the skin and its growth becomes unhealthy.

3. Simbiosis Komensalisme

Komensalisme Symbiosis is the relationship between two living beings who favor one party, but do not harm others. Have you ever heard of shark and fish Remora? Symbiosis komensalisme seen between the shark with Remora fish. Remora fish that swim near the shark's body will also venture into the shark wherever it goes. Remora fish to be safe from the threat of fish other predators because predator fish scared of sharks. As for sharks, the presence or absence has no effect against Remora fish.

Examples of other komensalisme symbiosis is the relationship between ferns or orchids with large trees and sea anemones clown fish. Try to find information about relations between the two groups of these creatures!

B. Food Chain

We often see a butterfly perched on a flower or goats roamed the prairie. In the field, we too often see frogs, rats,or snakes. Whether the animals are related? What happens if the pasture is on the surface of the earth is gone?

What is a food chain? The food chain is a journey to eat and be eaten by a certain sequence antarmakhluk life. Consider Figure 4.4! rice eaten by mice, then mice eaten by snakes, snakes are eaten by hawks. After some time the eagle dead, their carcasses rotting and mixed with soil to form humus. Humus is needed plants, especially grass. So on so that this process runs from time to time. In the oceans, which become producers are phytoplankton, which is a set of green plants are very small in size and floating in water. Consumers I is the zooplankton (animal-eating phytoplankton), whereas its second consumer is small fish, its third consumer is the fish are, its consumers IV is the big fish. The sequence of events and eat meals on a balanced and can run smoothly if all components are there. If one component is missing, then there is inequality in order to eat and eat them. In order to continue to walk the food chain, then the number of producers should be greater than the number of consumers unity, unity consumers more than the second consumer, and so on. There is one more component that plays a major role in the food chain, that is degrading Decomposers are living things that outlines again the substances originally contained in the bodies of animals and plants that have died. The work of decomposition can help the process of soil enrichment. Examples of decomposers are bacteria and fungi.

C. Relationship with the Living Environment

You have to understand the relationship antarmakhluk life. Now, you will learn about the relationship of living things with their environment.

Awareness of the interdependence between living things with their environment can make us more appreciative of all God's creation. Different living groups and live in one place will form a community. For example, there are fields in the community living groups, such as rice, grass, mice, grasshoppers, snails, eagles, and snakes. Living things going in a relationship of interdependence antarmakhluk live in community. In addition, living things will also be in a relationship with their environment.

There are two kinds of environments, namely environmental biotic and abiotic environment. Biotic environment is an environment consisting of creatures life. For example, animals, plants, and humans. Environmental abiotic environment is composed of inanimate objects. For example, water, stone, sand, air, sunlight, and soil.

Living things depend on their environment. The relationship between living things with their environment to form ecosystems. So, if we call the river ecosystem, it means that in it there are fish, plants, water, plankton, sunlight, and air. However, if we call kominutas river, then there are only fish, plants, and plankton, without involving water, sunlight, and air. For more details about the ecosystem.

Food chain will not be interrupted as long as all links are available. For example, in the forest food chain will continue to be formed if there is grass, deer, and tigers. If there is no grass, the deer will starve and then die. If a lot of dead deer, the tiger became hungry. This is the safety of livestock and humans who live on the edge of the forest. If many of the dead tiger, then the number of deer out of control. This can lead to starvation because of insufficient grass available. Thus, any environmental changes affect the course of life.
Other examples of living things with lingkungannnya relationship between plants and worms. Did you ever see the worms? how its shape? Jijikkah you see it? Many people are disgusted to see worms. But behind it, worms are very instrumental great for plants and humans. Worms are animals that live in the soil. Worm food in the form of leaves that have rotted. To obtain food, the worms make holes in the ground. Incidentally, these holes allows air and water into the soil. So, the worm is very helpful in penggemburan and soil enrichment. Fertile soil is required plants to grow and develop. A good plant will produce high quality food. Food quality is very necessary human. Try to find another example of the relationship of living things with their environment! Every living being requires a healthy environment as a place of residence. Fish in the river requires a clean river water and not polluted. Tigers, elephants, snakes and other forest animals require natural forest environment, green, and lush. Plants in the forest requires environmental conditions with temperature, sunlight, and rain is sufficient for growth. Environment can be changed for the worse because of some things, such as pollution and forest fires.

1. Contamination
Contamination can occur in the environment on land, water, and air. Pollution on land usually causes the soil infertile. As a result of land can not be planted. Pollution of water damage to life on the water. Plants, fish and all living creatures that live in water will die. Air pollution can cause respiratory disease. We often encounter is water pollution, for example river. River pollution is usually caused by chemical waste and waste dumped into rivers. Chemical wastes discharged into the river causing the river of life disrupted. It could even lead to certain types of living creatures perish. Talk to your parents, is there any type of fish that they had met, but now extinct? In addition to waste, the waste causing the river flow is not smooth. If rain falls, the water in the river will overflow because the flow is not smooth. This can lead to catastrophic flooding. Flood damage the environment. Due to flooding, the living impaired. In addition, mounting garbage is also causing a bad odor. The air around it becomes contaminated. Even the polluted river is a source of various diseases, such as skin diseases and diarrhea. Therefore, for a clean and healthy environment, should not throw garbage in the river and improve the program of the clean (PROKASIH).

2. Forest fires

Forest fires threaten many lives in the forest. The trees are on fire will dry and die. Similarly, forest animals, they will lose their shelter and food sources. Humans need to maintain and preserve the forests because the forest is useful to prevent flooding and erosion as well as animal shelter. As flood prevention, the forest will absorb rain water to be stored in the soil. In certain places, the water will come out as springs. If the rain water falling on the bare ground, the flow of water there is nothing holding him. As a result, when the heavy rains, flooding can occur. To avoid all that, we are prohibited from cutting down trees in the forest by logging and forest burning. In addition to causing flooding, forest fires can cause smoke that interfere with human, animal, and the surrounding environment. The smoke also can lead to vision and breathing becomes impaired. To keep the forest in order to remain sustainable, the government form a unity rangers. These officials make sure to avoid logging and poaching, and timber theft (illegal logging). In addition, rangers are also tasked with emergency response in case of forest fires. Would you perform this noble task?

Source: Crayonpedia


Symbiosis comes from the Greek sym biosis meaningful and meaningful life. Symbiosis is an interaction between two organisms that live side by side.

Symbiosis is an interaction pattern that is very close and special between two different kinds of living things. Living things that do symbiosis called symbionts.

There are several forms of symbiosis that is:
  •  Parasitism is where the party is a benefit and harm the other party. Example:
  1. Parasite with its host plant
  2. Ropes daughter with their host
  3. Stomach worms and hookworms that live in human intestines
  4. Interest Raflesia with its host

  • Mutualism are the relationships among living things is mutually beneficial to both parties. For example:
  1. Remora and Shark Fish
  2. Flowers Shoes and Bees
  3. Birds Starling and Buffalo.
  4. Certain types of fungi and certain algae species formed likenes
  5. Flower with butterfly
  • Komensalisme is where the party is a benefit but the other party is not aggrieved and disadvantaged. Example:
  1. Clown fish in the sea anemone
  2. Orchids and ferns with their host plants.
  • Amensalisme ie when the aggrieved party and other parties are not disadvantaged or harmed.
  • Competition in which both parties mutually harmful, usually occur through competition in getting the food.
  • Neutralism where both parties have not benefited or harmed one another. Interaction between the two species do not cause the gain or loss for both.
Symbiosis can be differentiated into two distinct categories.
  • Ektosimbiosis
  • Endosymbiosis

Source: Wikipedia

Kata-kata Mutiara Dari Seorang Bung Karno

1. “Berikan aku 1000 orang tua, niscaya akan kucabut semeru dari akarnya, berikan aku 1 pemuda, niscaya akan kuguncangkan dunia” .

2. “Tidak seorang pun yang menghitung-hitung: berapa untung yang kudapat nanti dari Republik ini, jikalau aku berjuang dan berkorban untuk mempertahankannya”. (Pidato HUT Proklamasi 1956 Bung Karno).

3. “Jadikan deritaku ini sebagai kesaksian, bahwa kekuasaan seorang Presiden sekalipun ada batasnya. Karena kekuasaan yang langgeng hanyalah kekuasaan rakyat. Dan di atas segalanya adalah kekuasaan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.”

4. “Apabila di dalam diri seseorang masih ada rasa malu dan takut untuk berbuat suatu kebaikan, maka jaminan bagi orang tersebut adalah tidak akan bertemunya ia dengan kemajuan selangkah pun”.

5. “Bangsa yang besar adalah bangsa yang menghormati jasa pahlawannya.” (Pidato Hari Pahlawan 10 Nop.1961).

6. “Perjuanganku lebih mudah karena mengusir penjajah, tapi perjuanganmu akan lebih sulit karena melawan bangsamu sendiri.”

7. “Bangsa yang tidak percaya kepada kekuatan dirinya sebagai suatu bangsa, tidak dapat berdiri sebagai suatu bangsa yang merdeka.” (Pidato HUT Proklamasi 1963 Bung Karno).

8. “……….Bangunlah suatu dunia di mana semua bangsa hidup dalam damai dan persaudaraan……” (Bung Karno).

9. “Kita belum hidup dalam sinar bulan purnama, kita masih hidup di masa pancaroba, tetaplah bersemangat elang rajawali “. (Pidato HUT Proklamasi, 1949 Soekarno).

10. “Janganlah mengira kita semua sudah cukup berjasa dengan segi tiga warna. Selama masih ada ratap tangis di gubuk-gubuk pekerjaan kita belum selesai! Berjuanglah terus dengan mengucurkan sebanyak-banyak keringat.” (Pidato HUT Proklamasi, 1950 Bung Karno).

11. “Firman Tuhan inilah gitaku, Firman Tuhan inilah harus menjadi Gitamu : “Innallahu la yu ghoiyiru ma bikaumin, hatta yu ghoiyiru ma biamfusihim”. ”Tuhan tidak merubah nasib sesuatu bangsa sebelum bangsa itu merubah nasibnya” (Pidato HUT Proklamasi, 1964 Bung Karno).

12. “Janganlah melihat ke masa depan dengan mata buta! Masa yang lampau adalah berguna sekali untuk menjadi kaca bengala dari pada masa yang akan datang.” (Pidato HUT Proklamasi 1966, Soekarno).

13. “Apakah Kelemahan kita: Kelemahan kita ialah, kita kurang percaya diri kita sebagai bangsa, sehingga kita menjadi bangsa penjiplak luar negeri, kurang mempercayai satu sama lain, padahal kita ini asalnya adalah Rakyat Gotong Royong” (Pidato HUT Proklamasi, 1966 Bung Karno).

14. “Aku Lebih suka lukisan Samudra yang bergelombangnya memukul, mengebu-gebu, dari pada lukisan sawah yang adem ayem tentrem, “Kadyo siniram wayu sewindu lawase” (Pidato HUT Proklamasi 1964 Bung Karno).

15. “Laki-laki dan perempuan adalah sebagai dua sayapnya seekor burung. Jika dua sayap sama kuatnya, maka terbanglah burung itu sampai ke puncak yang setinggi-tingginya; jika patah satu dari pada dua sayap itu, maka tak dapatlah terbang burung itu sama sekali.” ( Sarinah, hlm 17/18 Bung Karno)

Magdeburg Water Bridge, the splendor of the river in the Upper River

Magdeburg Water Bridge is water navigation channel in Germany which connects the Elbe-Havel canal to the Mittelland canal and allow the ship to cross over the River Elbe as high as 918 meters. Magdeburg Water Bridge is the longest navigation waterways in the world.

Elbe-Havel Canal and the Mittelland canal near Magdeburg previously met but on the opposite side of the Elbe. Ships from the Elbe-Havel canal to the Mittelland canal must first take a detour along the 12 kilometers, down from Canal Mittelland through Rothensee giant water elevator to lift the boat into the Elbe, then sail against the current.

Before entering the Elbe-Havel canal had to go through Niegripp Lock. Receding water levels in the Elbe often make the ship loaded cargo crossings can not do this, and this takes much longer to load and unload ships.

Development of water channel was started since 1930 but because of World War 2 and the subsequent division of Germany, the work was delayed until 1997. Water channel was finally completed and opened to the public in 2003.

Source: What the World news

Secret Fire Ants Congratulations from Floods

This is a great vehicle to save themselves from floods. Vehicles that can assemble themselves in 100 seconds andcapable of maintain thousands to millions of passengers safely , and floating for days ,even up to several weeks .

Group floating fire ants together is incredible natural engineering. Scientists trying to find out how ants create a safe raft and durable than their own bodies.

With a raft, they can save themselves from floods in the original habitat of fire ants in South America, as well as migrate to distant places.

The team of scientists led by Nathan Mlot, bioengineering experts at Georgia Institute of Technology, United States, collecting fire ants on the sidewalk and filmed as well as freezing the ants when they form a floating group. Once placed into the water in the laboratory, groups of ants that spherical spreading.

Ants were holding, using claws, jaws, and sticky pads on their feet, the discharge of oil, which enable them to cling to the slippery surface. Once the life raft was finished, its shape resembles a pancake.

Ant's outer body part, called the cuticle, are hydrophobic or water repellent. Surface rough cuticles making ants may hold the air in his body when submerged in water and form a layer Plastron.

"large group who were holding fire ants that have anti-water is higher, so that all members of the group to float at the same time prevent water entering the raft," said Mlot.

Ant raft that take advantage of a small ant's body. "On a scale of millimeters, the ant has a great power, high speed, and ability to withstand the air bag when immersed in water, which ultimately makes them antiair raft," said Mlot in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "This capability seems to be lost in a bigger size."

Unfortunately, the raft of ants that have a weakness. Dispersed and the raft will sink if the water were given soap or other surfactants that destroy the surface tension of water.

Source: Breaking News

Rabu, 27 April 2011


Swindon Newts get Health Check

Swabs are being taken from the thighs of newts and toads in Swindon to determine whether they are carrying a fungal infection.
The chytrid fungus causes an infectious skin disease which has led to a decline in some amphibian species. Wiltshire Wildlife Trust says the survey will determine whether it is affecting creatures in the county.

Frogs do not appear to be affected by the fungus, the spokesman said.

The chytrid fungus causes chytridiomycosis, which has led to a decline in amphibian species in places including Australia, South American and parts of Spain.

Swindon Advertiser -
26 Apr 2011
Location: Swindon, United Kingdom

Distemper Outbreak

Reports of raccoons acting strangely -- walking in circles, sunning themselves on backyard decks, and climbing hydro poles in broad daylight -- are on the increase across Norfolk following an outbreak of distemper.

The disease, which has symptoms similar to rabies, is highly contagious and almost always fatal in cats and dogs. It is not transferable to humans.

Local officials are warning residents to keep pets, which can be protected through vaccination, and children away from animals acting in this way. It's not unusual to get a few reports of distemper in the spring, but "it's insane this year," said Denise Boniface of Bryden's Den Wildlife Centre in Port Ryerse, who rescues and rehabilitates orphaned wildlife.

"I got four calls on the weekend. Normally, I'd get four calls a year. Since January, I've had 12 calls."

The jump in cases is part of a "wave" of distemper that has been moving eastward across Ontario since the autumn of 2009, said Ben Hindmarsh, a fish and wildlife specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources in Aylmer.

The Expositor -
27 Apr 2011
D Pearce
Location: Port Ryerse, Ontario, Canada - Map It


Selasa, 26 April 2011

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here.

Understanding risk perceptions to enhance communication about human-wildlife interactions and the impacts of zoonotic disease
ILAR J. 2010;51(3):255-61.
Special Issue: One Health: The Intersection of Humans, Animals, and the Environment
DJ Decker et al.

Pollutants affect development in nestling starlings Sturnus vulgaris
Journal of Applied Ecology. 2011 Apr; 48(2):391–397
S Markman et al.

Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry
Virology Journal. 2011 Apr; 8(1): 187
A Kohls et al.

Atomic structures suggest determinants of transmission barriers in Mammalian prion disease
Biochemistry. 2011 Apr 5;50(13):2456-63. Epub 2011 Mar 11.
MI Apostol et al.

Wildlife Middle East - March 2011
Volume 5, Issue 4

Emerging Infectious Diseases - May 2011
Volume 17, Number 5

Wildlife Disease Association - April 2011

SCWDS (Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study) Briefs
Volume 26, Number 4 [pdf]

One Health Newsletter - Winter 2011

Volume 4, Issue 1 [pdf]

Diseases of Aquatic Organisms - April 2011
Volume 95, Number 2

Caring for Wildlife in Ireland
Veterinary Ireland Journal. 2011 Feb; 64(2): 98 - 103 [free full-text pdf]
J Hedley and E Higgs

The anthropogenic environment lessens the intensity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Balinese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Primates. 2011 Apr;52(2):117-28. Epub 2010 Dec 17.
KE Lane et al.

The Ecology of Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds in Southern Africa
EcoHealth. 2011; [Epub ahead of print]
GS Cummings et al.

Elk distribution and spatial overlap with livestock during the brucellosis transmission risk period
Journal of Applied Ecology. 2011 Apr; 48(2):471–478
KM Proffitt et al.

Top Stories - News Briefs

When eroded Zaman Local Wisdom

In Situ Cisanti around, place the first time ancient Citarum river water flowing from the forest area of ​​Mount Wayang, South Bandung, there are various myths that disclosed a number of caretaker. But the decree ancestor associated with the preservation of nature, nothing is preserved.

Oman (58), a caretaker who down through the generations living in it reveals, once pamali (taboo) of people entering the forest of Mount Wayang because it bans ancestor. Anyone who dared to enter, much less corrupt, would be lost and affected mamala (disaster). "There have been people come in and cut down trees on Mount Wayang, the return of death," said Oman.

"Once these haunted woods, anyone who entered the forest is often Kasarung (lost). He kept circling around the forest and could not go home," said Ma Ash (75), another caretaker, strengthened. The meaning of that ketabuan actually is, for the region's forests are not damaged.

But residents now, is no longer noticed ketabuan. "Now his time is different," he added, pointing Oman rribuan farmers into forest areas and agricultural land has created a season.

In fact, the use of myth or belief communities to mengeramatkan a place are still effective as a means of preserving the natural world around the venue. In fact, how it can coexist with existing formal institutions, such as legislation, including law enforcement officers.

"That is why, many indigenous communities who used to hold a traditional ritual at a location intended to give the impression armature or should be treated with caution by ordinary people," said Madani Dada, youth leaders from the District Kertasari some time ago.

The sixth generation of Kuncen or guardians of Mount Wayang, Ujang Suhanda, replied, formal institutions such as law officers can actually walk along together with cultural institutions.

"People still believe that there are separate rules when entering areas that are considered haunted. Regulation could include restrictions or obligations that must be done before the move," said Ujang.

In the upper Citarum, the use of myth has not done as much as indigenous communities to protect nature from destruction by humans. Therefore, the myth is often dibenturkan with religion, so that looks just ideology or belief. In fact, the values ​​of local wisdom in the conservation of nature has always aimed at the common benefit.

Customary rituals to save forests and water that had been there for example, Darma Bakti Wisada Kuwera ceremony. The last ceremony was held in mid-2007 and was never held again because it was considered controversial.

"We finally make rational approach that the water source is common property and must be preserved. Knowledge of our citizens fairly open because access to education in the city of Bandung is relatively close, "said Agus Darajat, Chairman of the Forest Village Community Institution Wana Lestari Village District Tarumajaya Kertasari Bandung regency.


Encroachment that causes land conversion from catcher water (catchment area) into the agricultural season, related to the narrow land ownership due to population pressure. In District Kertasari, according to Dede Jauhari, an activator of Natural Resources Community Care Local, inhabited 70,000 residents or 12 thousand heads of households who almost entirely trying farmer.

In general, Pemangkuan Unity Forest Area Forest (KPH) South Bandung didominsasi by Protected Forest Area and most of the areas included in river flow daera (DAS) Citarum. One area that became the center of attention is Situ Cisanti Perhutanioffice which is the Citarum river. The flow of rivers flowing through forested areas are in resort Pemangkuan Pacet Section KPH Ciparay Forest plots 59, 60.

Most forest areas are located on the main flow of the Upper Citarum watershed wide forest area only ranged from 50 ms to 200 m. While the area around it is a community-owned land used as vegetable farming area with no heed to the rules of conservation. "Given the very vital position, then the necessary activities to improve the quality of border rivers Citarum watershed located in forest areas," said Bambang Julianto, Administrator Perhutanioffice South Bandung.

In order to improve the conservation function of forest area, it is necessary to enrichment by planting crops that serves as a drag surface erosion and landslides. The species selected is the kind calothyrsus, bamboo and elephant grass. Selection types are intended other than its function as a barrier to erosion and landslide, economic functions of the three types are also to be one source of public revenue. Residents can develop beekeeping and animal husbandry.

On The residents need to do conservation and economical approach. Selection of plant species such as helping the development of beekeeping calothyrsus in addition as a provider of fuel wood needs of the surrounding community. Development of elephant grass as a drag surface erosion as well as a provider of green fodder which is one of the business culture of the surrounding community. While the development of bamboo which has strong roots will serve to hold the border river of water scour.

Whatever the initiative, the effort to preserve the headwaters of the river Citarum to do all the parties as long as 310 kilometers an ancient river that flowed from Situ Cisanti until the Java Sea at the end of Karawang-Bekasi Regency is very strategic. One of them, contributor Java Bali interconnection electricity to drive the business and illuminates nearly half the population of this republic.

Flow area reached 718,289 hectares. Consisting of 158,174 acres of state forest (22 percent), which is owned by Perhutan 137,298 hectares (19 percent) and the unity of the South Bandung forest pemangkuan 55,446 hectares (8 percent). Conservation area is only three percent.

Most of the land in the watershed is the longest in West Java community-owned, 560,094 hectare (78 percent), which is dominated by agricultural land, residential, industrial and others. All the waste of life events in this region thrown into Citarum.

Source: Compass

Tempe, Source of Protein and Cholesterol Lowering

Do not underestimate the tempeh. People food is a source of good nutrition, easily absorbed by the body and the price is cheap. How much should we eat?

Tempe made from soybeans and fermented using the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus in fact has been known for centuries, especially in the food culture of Javanese society. The first reference found on soybean in 1875. Currently tempe even worldwide along with the migration of people all over Java.

Savor tempeh to health has been known since the time of Japanese occupation in Indonesia. At that time the prisoners of war who were fed tempeh spared from dysentery and malnutrition.

According Prof.Dr.Made Astawan, professor of Bogor Agricultural University, Tempe does contain antibacterial agents that cause diarrhea. Tempe also has the potential to be used against free radicals to inhibit the digestive process and prevent many diseases, lower cholesterol up to cope with hypertension.

Another advantage of tempeh is able to consume people of all ages. According dr.Samuel Oetoro, Sp.GK, a nutritionist from Semanggi Clinic, tempeh is a source of easily digestible protein that body.

"The protein in tempeh is broken down by the tempeh mold so that the protein, fat and carbohydrate becomes more digestible. In addition, tempeh also contains fiber," said dr.Samuel encountered disebuah launch a national nutrition study in Jakarta.

Fiber in tempeh is quite high, namely about 8-10 cent. This means that in every 100 grams of tempeh will contribute about 30 percent of the recommended amount of fiber consumed per day.

Prof.Made in his book Nutrition and Food said the study shows babies and toddlers who suffer from malnutrition experienced weight gain after a given consumption of tempeh. Toddlers who suffer from diarrhea also heal faster in a short time.

Consumption of 150 grams tempeh every day for two weeks was also shown to lower total cholesterol.

Source: Compass

Gallery 3

PEEK Shape Change (Metamorphosis) Dragonflies

Dragonfly females will not mate again after fertilization. However, this is not a problem for the type of Calopteryx virgo males. By using a hook on its tail, male dragonfly females caught in his throat (1). The female wraps her legs around the tail of male dragonflies. Males by using a special connection in its tail (2), cleaning the semen that might linger from other males. Then, he put semen into the cavity of the female sex. Because this event takes many hours, they sometimes fly in a position coincide. Dragonfly adults leave eggs in shallow lakes or ponds (3). Once the pupae hatch from eggs, pupae live in water for three to four years (4).

During this period, the pupae are also feeding in the water (5). Therefore, it was created with a body that is able to swim fast in order to catch fish and pinned by strong enough to tear apart its prey. With the growth of chrysalis, the skin is wrapped around her stronger. He let go of the skin in four different times.

When it comes to the last change, he left the water and began to climb higher plants or stones (6). He climbed to his feet firmly fixed. Then, he protects himself with the help of tongs at the end of its legs. One slip and fall meant death at the time. The last stage is different with the four previous stages, this is the time when God formed the dragonfly into a creature that can fly through an amazing transition.

The back is first split chrysalis (7). Hemisphere was widened and a gap opens, where new creatures are very different from previous forms, struggling to get out. The body is very vulnerable is protected with a bond drawn from earlier creatures (8) This Association has created the perfect clarity and flexibility. Otherwise the bond will be broken and can not be taken, which could mean that the worm can be dropped into the water and die.

In addition, there are a series of special ways that help solve dragonfly leather cocoon. Dragonfly body and mengeriput shrink in body length. To "unlock" the chrysalis, a fluid pump system and a special body created to be used in this process. Mengeriput body part is inflated by pumping fluid from his body after a successful exit slit the cocoon (9).

Meanwhile, chemical solutions begin to break the bond between the new legs with long feet without damage. This process is perfect even though it would cause damage if a foot was trapped. The legs are allowed to dry and harden for about twenty minutes before use.

Its wings are fully formed but still in the folded state. Body fluid is pumped by a strong contraction of body tissues into the wing (10). The wings are drying after stretching (11)

After dragonfly leaves the body length and dry up completely, try the entire foot and dragonfly wings. The legs are folded and stretched one after another and dinaik wings and drop off.

Finally, these insects reach a form that is designed to fly. It is very difficult for anyone to believe that this perfect creature with flying creature that resembles a caterpillar who leaves the water (12). Dragonfly pump excess fluid out, to balance the system. Metamorphosis is complete and the dragonfly is ready to fly.

We witnessed the absurdity of the theory of evolution again when we try to use reason to discover the origin of this amazing transition. The theory of evolution states that all beings arise through random changes. In fact, the metamorphosis of the dragonfly is a very complicated process and does not give a gap for even a small error even at each stage in its path. The smallest obstacle in each of these stages will result in incomplete metamorphosis that resulted in injury or death dragonfly. Metamorphosis is truly a life cycle with the "irreducibly complexity" so that it becomes tangible proof design.

In short, the metamorphosis of the dragonfly is one of the many real evidence about how perfect God created living things. Amazing art of God manifested itself even in an insect.


Source : Geoweek