Mycorrhizal plant roots require to complete their life cycle. Conversely, some plants and some even depend on growth with mycorrhizae. Some plant species do not thrive or stunted without the presence of mycorrhizae in the roots. For example, pine seedlings usually fail to grow after the removal if it does not form mycorrhizal networks around the roots. Only a few groups of plants that do not become symbionts, such as the Brassicaceae, Commelinaceae, Juncaceae, Proteaceae, Capparaceae, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae, Resedaceae, Urticaceae, and Caryophyllales.
Mycorrhiza can artificially inoculated. However, inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal require assistance of local commercial, for example by adding soil from plant origin.
Mycorrhizae are divided into two groups based on how it infects, ie ektomikoriza and endomikoriza.
Ektomikoriza infects the outer surface of the plant and root tip cells. As a result of the attack, looks braided white mycelia on the root hairs, known as hartig net. This attack can cause changes in root morphology. The roots shortened, swollen, branched dikotom, and can form a pigment. Infectivity depends isolates and cultivars of host plants. Host plants are usually annual plants or trees. Some of them are forestry and agricultural commodities such as sengon, teak, and several fruit crops such as mango, rambutan, and oranges. Also trees member Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Pinaceae and also became its host. In general ektomikoriza included in the Basidiomycota.
Endomikoriza infect the inside of the roots, within and between cells of the root tip (root tip). Hyphae enter the cells or filling the spaces between cells. This mycorrhizal type found in many seasonal plants which are an important agricultural commodity, like beans, rice, corn, some vegetables and ornamentals. These infections do not cause changes in root morphology, but changes the appearance of cells and tissues of roots. Based on the type of infection, known endomikoriza three groups: ericaceous (Ericales with a number of Ascomycota), orchidaceous (Orchidaceae with a group of Basidiomycota), and vesicular arbuscular (number of vascular plants with Endogonales, forming the structure of vesicles (bubbles) and arbuscular the root cortex) abbreviated MVA.
MVA and ektomikoriza useful for agriculture and forestry. Ektomokoriza can be grown in laboratory aksenik so easily developed. MVA was grown in aksenik difficult (artificial media), so that MVA is considered an obligate symbionts (mandatory).
Vesicle-shaped granules in the cytoplasm containing lipid and an organ of vegetative reproduction mycorrhiza, particularly when the cells rupture due to damage to the root cortex. Arbuscular hyphae that penetrate the tangible collection plasmalema and helps transport nutrients within the plant cell. Formation of vesicles and Arbuscular in cells indicates that there have been a perfect symbiosis and plants are able to enjoy the fruits of cooperation with mycorrhizae form of increased availability of nutrients absorbed from the soil.
Besides vesicles and arbuscular, external hyphae are formed that can help expand the absorption of nutrients by the roots. In onions, for example, the length of external hyphae may reach 80 cm by one cm long root. Outside the root, to form a sporangium hyphae that produce spores as a means of reproduction.
MVA bring much benefit to plants simbionnya. He improved the plants and reduce fertilizer inputs in agricultural crops. This occurs because the MVA increase the availability of some nutrients in the soil that required plants, especially phosphate. Increased absorption of phosphate was accompanied by increased absorption of other nutrients, like nitrogen (N), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and sulfur (S). In addition, the MVA expand the land that can be reached by the host plant. Oranges, for instance, is known responsive to inoculation with MVA. This inoculation can lead to decreased use of fertilizer P. Besides increasing nutrient availability, MVA increases plant tolerance to water shortages. Extensive network of hyphae in the soil helps the roots absorb water. MVA affect host plant resistance to disease attack. MVA, depending on the species, can reduce the influence of fungal pathogen attack. Similarly, also can reduce nematode attack. In contrast, MVA-infected plants decreased resistance to viral attacks.
Effect of other MVA has ever been observed is support for the symbiosis between nodule bacteria and legumes, the production of gibberellins by Gibberella mosseae, affecting certain fitohormon synthesis, and improve the structure of soil aggregation.